Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds – A Comprehensive U by Gordon W. Gribble is available to download free in pdf / epub format.
Organohalogen compound, any of a class of organic compounds that contain at least one halogen (fluorine [F], chlorine [Cl], bromine [Br], or iodine [I]) bonded to carbon. They are subdivided into alkyl, vinyl, aryl, and acyl halides. In alkyl halides all four bonds to the carbon that bears the halogen are single bonds; in vinyl halides the carbon that bears the halogen is doubly bonded to another carbon; in aryl halides the halogen-bearing carbon is part of an aromatic ring; and in acyl halides (also called acid halides) the halogen-bearing carbon is doubly bonded to oxygen. Examples of the four types are shown here.
It is the type of carbon to which the halogen is directly bonded that is primarily responsible for the characteristic properties of each class. Thus, the carbon that bears the halogen in alkyl chloride (CH2=CHCH2Cl) is singly bonded to each of its attached atoms, which makes the compound an alkyl halide even though a double bond is present elsewhere in the chain. For the same reason, benzyl chloride (C6H5CH2Cl) is an alkyl halide, not an aryl halide, even though a benzene ring is present.
Organohalogen compounds differ widely in chemical reactivity, depending on the halogen and the class to which they belong, and they may even differ within a class. A halogen substituent is considered a functional group, and the transformations of organohalogen compounds rank among the most important in organic chemistry. Many organohalogen compounds, especially organochlorine compounds, are important industrial chemicals; they are used as solvents and pesticides and as intermediates in the preparation of dyes, drugs, and synthetic polymers.